Understand more on Microsoft DNS Server (Part I)

DNS server play a very important role in Microsoft infrastruture. Most of the time, we just setup the AD together with DNS and leave the DNS as what it is. I think it’s good to relearn some parts in the DNS server so that we can be a better system engineer.

DNS Zone Type

A zone is a database that contains authoritative information about a portion of the DNS namespace.

Primary zones

  • Store zone information in a read write source data on the name server that allows the local DNS server to answer DNS queries authoritatively about a portion of a DNS namespace except when located at RODC

Secondary zones

  • Provides an authoritative, read-only copy of a primary zone or another secondary zone
  • Administrators can’t manually add, remove or modify resource records on it

Stub Zone

  • Similar like a secondary zone in that it obtains its resource records from other name servers (one or more master name servers)
  • also read-only like a secondary zone, so administrators can’t manually add, remove, or modify resource records on it but stub zones contain only 3 kinds of resource records
    • A copy of the SOA record for the zone.
    • Copies of NS records for all name servers authoritative for the zone.
    • Copies of A records for all name servers authoritative for the zone.
  • no CNAME records, MX records, SRV records, or A records is found in Stub Zone
  • Suitable for slow WAN link connecting 2 companies
  • Can be integrated within Active Directory (secondary zones can’t), replication to propagate their information to all domain controllers on the network
    • To do this, the administrator for Company A would simply log on to one of the domain controllers, open the DNS console, and create a new stub zone that uses one or more of Company B’s name servers as master name servers.
    • By making this stub zone an Active Directory Integrated zone, the stub zone will then be automatically replicated to all other domain controllers on Company A’s network.
    • Now when a client on Company A’s network wants to connect to a resource on       Company B’s network, the client issues a DNS query to the nearest Company A’s domain controller, which then forwards the query to one of Company B’s name servers to resolve.

Storing the Zone in Active Directory

  • Primary or stub zone are allow to store zone in Active Directory
  • Zone data is autumnally replicated through Active Directory
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